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Proven reserves are the oil that we know is there that we have wells into and can economically produce for prices less than the current price of oil. It is not a continuingly declining number as we use it up. That doesn’t include all the oil left in the ground. which are unproven reserves. We are almost constantly been exploring and increasing our permanent reserves faster than we use up the ones we have had. Also if the price of oil rises, we will suddenly have more reserves because the oil that was too expensive is now economically feasible. Even a 10% reduction in oil use through conservation and more efficient machinery extends the years of proven reserves if we don’t find any more. This chart shows that oil reserves remain level or increase over time through exploration discoveries and efficient production improvements despite continuing consumption. If we only had a fixed amount and there was continuous consumption the reserves would go down as time progressed.

How does the oil actually get burnt in an oil-fired steam engine” The oil, which is thick and viscous, is heated in the tank by steam pipes to make it runny enough to feed. It is fed to burners in the firebox, which often use steam to atomize the oil at the burner. The atomized oil produces a large, hot flame, equivalent to the bed of burning coals in a coal-fired locomotive. “what does the fireman do differently without coal to shovel” His job is less physical but still very demanding. He (or she) must manage the fuel oil temperature and the size of the fire, anticipating the demands that the road will put on the engine, and having steam ready for the driver to use. He also manages the water level in the boiler, a critical task. In addition, he looks out of the cab window to aid the driver with a second pair of eyes on the road, and to spot any signals that may be obstructed by curves, for instance. Makes tea or coffee, fries breakfast on the (now otherwise redundant) shovel, and in his spare time studies for his driver qualification…

Oil producers extract around 159 million barrels of crude oil from Alaska. Between 1980 and 2020, Alaska’s crude oil production volume declined by more than half. Alaska’s proven oil reserves amount to 2.4 billion barrels. Mar 3, 2022. The past 10 years have seen a steady but gradual decline. The criminally corrupt Democrat party has blocked the required reserve replacement available along the extreme north edge, about 2% of ANWR, for decades. There are no polar bears there only mosquitoes. Everything about the democrats is bad, but their opposition to Alaska oil reserve replacement is among their greater sins. A blown head gasket is the number 1 reason for it. You’d think they could make them so they don’t blow. They’re cheap enough to manufacture. Whatever the owner’s manual recommends is the best motor oil for a chevy. If you do anything different than what is recommended you risk voiding your warranty.

Between the development of NPR-A and the 1002 Area of ANWR, Alaska could place an additional ~17 billion barrels of oil and an additional 32Tcf of gas in the marketplace. The Alaska Gasline Project has key permits and federal loan guarantees in place. Despite being the top global producer, the US turns to Russian crude to service more-isolated coastal markets and keep refineries running at optimal levels. In the wake of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the Biden administration is banning Russian oil imports into the U.S. Expecting an expanded response by Western governments to Vladimir Putin’s aggression, refiners have already balked at buying Russian oil and banks are refusing to finance shipments of Russian commodities, according to traders, oil executives and bankers.

The U.S. still consumes far more oil than companies extract domestically, requiring it to import some supplies. But it is less reliant on Russia’s oil than Europe and takes only a small portion of its imported crude from Russia. America gets most of its crude imports from Canada, Mexico, and Saudi Arabia. Smaller countries in Latin America and West Africa also typically send more crude to the U.S. than Russia had been sending.
About 8% of U.S. imports of oil and refined products, or about 672,000 barrels a day, came from Russia last year. Of that, Russia’s crude made up roughly 3% of the nation’s imports, about 200,000 barrels a day. The Jones Act passed a century ago, has effectively limited the size of vessels that are allowed to transport goods between U.S. ports. That has left oil buyers on the West Coast and East Coast effectively unable to get supplies shipped out of the Gulf Coast.


That said, assuming Italy was capable of extracting it, it would have made Italy a much wealthier nation. Mussolini would’ve been able to rebuild his military more quickly, etc. More importantly, though, he would have been in a stronger position vis a vis Hitler/Nazi Germany. That strength may not have played out to Hitler’s advantage as one might assume. Folks forget that Hitler tried to annex Austria first in 1934 (before the successful 1938 Anschluss). Mussolini sent Italian troops into Austria to protect its interests in the nation and was at least partly responsible for that 1934 effort failing. Mussolini also sought to warn Britain of the dangers Germany presented. In the early to mid-1930s, Mussolini presented multiple opportunities to Britain and France to bring Italy to their side of the war he knew was coming. He was repeatedly rebuffed — much in the same way the Allies had looked down on (in the view of most Italians) and treated Italy after victory in WWI (Italy was on the allied side in WWI).